How to Modernize a Hymn – Part one of a two part series
I don’t think there are many Christians, even those who use nothing but Contemporary music, that doubt or question the depth and the beauty of the lyrics contained in our wealth of hymns. But sometimes, they are difficult to comprehend or are just too musically foreign to those that we are Called to reach.
There is a process to modernize these hymns and to put chords to them but it’s not easy to do and there are a lot of subtleties that only come with experience and knowledge. In this two-part series, I will try to address one basic approach to do this.
In this first installment, we will consider a step-by-step approach written for a beginner’s level and the second installment will show an example where these types of techniques have been used successfully.
So let’s start…
Step One – Put Chords to it
Here is the process you will need to add your own chords:
- Identify the key signature by looking at the number of sharps and flats.
No sharps or flats – key of C or Am
1 Sharp – key of G or Em
2 Sharps – key of D or Bm
3 Sharps – key of A or F#m
4 Sharps – key of E or C#m
5 Sharps – key of B or G#m (rarely used)
6 Sharps – key of F# or D#m (rarely used)
1 flat – key of F or Dm
2 flats – key of Bb or Gm
3 flats – key of Eb or Cm
4 flats – key of Ab or Fm
5 flats – key of Db or Bbm
6 flats – key of Gb or Ebm (rarely used)
- Know the typical chords used in each key signature (these are referred to as the harmonized scales):
MAJOR SCALE R - 2 - 3 4 - 5 - 6 - 7
C maj.: C - Dm - Em F - G - Am - rarely
Db maj.: Db - Ebm - Fm Gb - Ab - Bbm - used
D maj.: D - Em - F#m G - A - Bm
Eb maj.: Eb - Fm - Gm Ab - Bb - Cm
E maj.: E - F#m - G#m A - B - C#m
F maj.: F - Gm - Am Bb - C - Dm
F# maj.: F# - G#m - A#m B - C# - D#m
G maj.: G - Am - Bm C - D - Em
Ab maj.: Ab - Bbm - Cm Db - Eb - Fm
A maj.: A - Bm - C#m D - E - F#m
Bb maj.: Bb - Cm - Dm Eb - F - Gm
B maj.: B - C#m - D#m E - F# - G#m
MINOR SCALE R - 2 b3 - 4 - 5 b6 - b7
A min.: Am - Bdim C - Dm - Em or E F
Bb min.: Bbm - Cbdim Db - Ebm - Fm or F Gb
B min.: Bm - C#dim D - Em - F#m or F# G
C min.: Cm - Ddim Eb - Fm - Gm or G Ab
C# min.: C#m - D#dim E - F#m - G#m or G# A
D min.: Dm - Edim F - Gm - Am or A Bb
Eb min.: Ebm - Fdim Gb - Abm - Bbm or Bb (B)
E min.: Em - F#dim G - Am - Bm or B C
F min.: Fm - Gdim Ab - Bbm - Cm or C Db
F# min.: F#m - G#dim A - Bm - C#m or C# D
G min.: Gm - Adim Bb - Cm - Dm or D Eb
G# min.: G#m - A#dim B - C#m - D#m or D# E
- Know what each line and space represent on the treble and bass clefs. (See below)
Image source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons
4. Now the hard part. If you know the key signature by the number of sharps and flats (item 1 above), then you know the basic chords to look for (item 2), and now you should be able to identify all the notes in each grouping of chords on your sheet music by using the chart in item 3. You will also need to know the notes that comprise each chord. Here’s a little help:
C# (or Db)….. C#-F-G# or (Db-F-Ab)
C#m (or Dbm).C#-E-G# or (Db-E-Ab)
F# (or Gb)……F#-A#-C#
F#m (or Gbm).F#-A-C#
5. Many hymns that don’t have guitar chords do so for a reason, and typically it is because every note in the melody line theoretically requires a different guitar chord. If this is the case, your song will sound too choppy with a chord change on every beat. Songs that lend themselves well to guitar accompaniment typically have a chord change at the start of the measures or sometimes at the mid-point of the measures. For example, a song in 4/4 time might have a chord change before the first and maybe the third beats. Even if you’re hymn requires a unique chord for each note in the melody line – don’t do it! If 4/4 time, stick to the chord changes on the first and third beats. Also, listen for the “strong beats” and put the chord changes on those particular notes.
6. When you have finished putting chords to a musical piece, sit back and look at the song in its entirety, as opposed to the note-by-note study that you have just finished. Look for overriding chord patterns or progressions. Sometimes, you can delete certain chords that you have identified and use fewer chords that fit into an overall theme for the song. It also sometimes helps to replace the chord names with Roman numerals and then to look for repeating patterns.
This technique should get you started. There are other more advanced issues such as numbered chords (C2, C5, Csus, C7, etc.) and slash chords (D/A, D/F#, D/G, etc.) but these can come later.
Step Two – Consider adding a Chorus and maybe a Bridge
Most hymns only have verses. Lots of verses. These verses tell a story. Sometimes it’s nice to respond to these verses with either a chorus or refrain and sometimes it’s nice to alter the musical accompaniment with a bridge.
When writing a chorus, think of it as an answer to the story being told in the verse. Also, the chorus is usually sung a bit higher than the verse and with more energy. Choruses are usually the “hook” of the song; they are the part that people will remember and sing throughout the upcoming week. The chorus will have a stronger chord progression than the more fragile verses and the chorus will typically use more of the tonic key notes than in the verses. Choruses can also talk about feelings, or how you should feel about the story being told in the verses. A good example of a hymn with a great chorus that you undoubtedly know is “Onward Christian Soldiers.” Another good example would be Chris Tomlin’s recent adaptation of “Amazing Grace” with his iconic chorus “My chains are gone, I’ve been set free. My God, my Savior, has ransomed me. And like a flood, His mercy reigns. Unending love. Amazing Grace.” – Wow!
The bridge offers melodic, lyrical and even harmonic variation. Bridges can be a welcome addition to hymns because the verses and even the chorus can be very repetitive. Oftentimes, bridges in songs written in major keys start with a minor chord and vice versa, and they almost never start with the tonic chord.
Next you will need a formula for the structure of your new hymn. Consider something like:
Verse 1, Verse 2, Chorus, Verse 3, Chorus, Bridge, Verse 4, Chorus, End
But there are unlimited combinations.
Step Three – Consider updating the lyrics
Read through the hymn lyrics. If they are in our CW hymnbook, they will be pretty awesome. However, some hymns use too many churchy words, too many archaic words, phrases no longer in use, old English, phrases that just didn’t translate well into English from the original language the hymn was written in and what I’ll call reverse poetry. Keep all these things if the hymn sings well and makes sense to you. Only make changes if the lyrics require you to research and study them immensly before you get the picture. Our hymnal has actually already come a long way. There were massive revisions between our current hymnal and it’s predecessor so you might be OK in this regard.
If you change lyrics, make sure that you do not change the message, the rhythm, or the meter (the number of syllables per measure). You may find a rhyming dictionary and a thesaurus to be helpful in this regard.
Step Four – Consider adding a Musical Turn Around
Most hymns just seem to run into a musical brick wall at the end of a verse and then awkwardly go back to the beginning. Update this! Add a short musical turn-around, perhaps just a measure or two, but find a way to musically tie the ending back to the beginning.
I know that many of you reading this post are in my denomination and have probably heard the band known as “Branches.” They have a great example of a musical turn around in their arrangement of “How Great Thou Art.” Just listen to Andy Braun and the band use a few simple chords to turn the end of each verse into a transition to get back to the beginning and you will know exactly what I am talking about. Braun’s turn-around makes an incredible hymn even more incredible and that’s the point of this effort.
Step Five – Consider Jazzing it Up
There are many ways to do this. Consider modulating the last verse up or down a whole step, or even a minor third, depending on the mood of the song. Or, take an instrumental break in between verses or simply add an intro. Another idea would be to use some chord extensions like ninths, elevenths, thirteenths or even major sevenths. Another thing you can do is add a few slash chords with inherent bass runs to connect the chords together.
Step Six – Say a Prayer of Thanks; you’ve made it.
Whew! That was a lot of work; but that hymn you’re considering redoing is worth it.
Tomorrow we will consider an example. “Praise God from Whom All Blessings Flow” that was redone by musician Michael Schroeder in 2010.